The phrase “Queen Bee” usually refers to a female position of power, but in reality Queen bees have no real power and like any other member of the colony can be removed by the workers at any time if she doesn't continue to perform.
An adult Queen bee surrounded by her workers
The Queen's role is critical as she is the only bee capable of laying fertilised eggs that will emerge as worker bees managing all the tasks critical to the colonies survival. She will also produce a relatively small number of unfertilised eggs that will hatch into male Drones that will ultimately pass her genetics onto the next generation of colonies elsewhere. A colony without a laying Queen is ultimately doomed to failure.
The Queen is attended by a small retinue of worker bees that feed her more than her own bodyweight in food each day. They also groom her and in the process distribute key pheromones that announce her presence to the whole colony. These pheromones have a huge impact on the social behaviour and maintenance of the colony as well as suppressing the female workers ovaries to prevent them laying (drone) eggs.
If for any reason the Queen is injured (by the beekeeper?) or reduces her output of pheromone as she ages, or runs out of stored sperm then she will be replaced by the colony as her usefulness is limited. New Queens are usually raised by the colony by building several larger Queen cells that hang vertically from the face of the comb. Groups of workers will select eggs or very young larvae as candidate Queens placing them in these cells and feeding them copious volumes of Royal Jelly produced by special glands in the heads of certain workers. Recent research has shown that NOT feeding an immature queen pollen and honey is what makes her royal, not her exclusive access to royal jelly. This process switches on certain genes and suppresses others turning the developing larvae that would normally become a worker into a Queen.
The first adult Queen to emerge will use her curved sting to kill all her rivals either hatched or in their cells before leaving the hive on one or more flights, mating on the wing with 15-20 drones before returning to her hive to start creating the next generation of workers.
So whilst the Queen bee might be Royal she’s ultimately a worker selected for greatness...